The diagnosis should not serve as a basis for falling into depression. The correct approach to the disease helps to cope with the problem, to return to the usual way of life. Compliance with basic recommendations with control of blood sugar levels, increased activity, and dietary nutrition allows you to avoid deterioration of the condition.
Features of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Autoimmune pathology arises as a consequence of another, previously transferred disease. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus include:
- loss of appetite;
- increased urination;
- constant thirst;
- attacks of nausea and vomiting.
When the first clinical signs appear or after the diagnosis is made, the patient should:
- Take insulin daily – laboratory and diagnostic examination helps to choose the right dosage of the substance. Refusal from the drug will lead to a rapid progression of the disease, in the worst case – death.
- Exercise regularly – daily exercise lowers blood glucose levels, while maintaining the effect obtained for 24 hours. Exercise helps to control body weight, lose weight, increase endurance and muscle strength. Classes should be held several times a week, with constant monitoring of blood sugar levels. Its deficiency can cause hypoglycemia with loss of consciousness, dizziness and weakness.
- Fight stress – pathology of a physiological or psychological type equally affects fluctuations in blood glucose. The best treatment for psycho-emotional instability is prevention. The patient should be less nervous, get enough sleep, and feel free to voice the problems that have arisen.
- Prevention of colds and other diseases – a healthy lifestyle improves the performance of the immune system, prevents the development of many diseases. A timely visit to a therapist will help to find the cause of the deterioration of the condition, to provide adequate therapy.
- Consider the nuances of menstruation and menopause treatment – Tracking blood sugar becomes more difficult with a monthly cycle. Patients note that during this period their glucose values increase, and large doses of insulin are required. All questions are discussed with an endocrinologist.
To maintain the level of sugars in the bloodstream, the patient needs a planned visit to the doctor. In the first days, meetings are held more often, and after the development of an individual therapy schedule – less often (once every 3-6 months). Working together will help control the state of the body during pregnancy, during stress and other situations.
The nuances of type 2 diabetes
With this type of pathology, the body is not able to produce sufficient amounts of insulin on its own. Treatment is prescribed by the local endocrinologist immediately after the diagnosis is confirmed. The list of recommended actions includes:
- Regular physical activity
The patient should move more, keep track of his own body weight, reduce the amount of sweets. Depending on the complexity of the pathology, the doctor prescribes the dosages of insulin and other drugs necessary for the body. Over time, the disease progresses, and the condition gradually worsens.
Obesity is one of the primary sources of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and excess weight provokes difficulties in its therapy. In difficult cases, the fight against excess body weight is reduced to surgical excision of a part of the stomach. Bypass surgery, laparoscopic banding is used in the last stages of obesity, with a body mass index exceeding 35 units.
- Delivery of tests and passing of prescribed examinations
Experts advise checking blood glucose levels daily. Portable blood glucose meters are sold at any medical equipment store, where you can also purchase tests. With the first type of pathology, monitoring is performed three times a day, with the second – up to 2 times a day. The results of self-examination must be recorded in a special diary.
The analysis for glycated hemoglobin is performed monthly or every 2-3 months. The study helps to identify the average indicator of substances in the blood, to determine the correctness of the prescribed therapy regimen. Hemoglobin molecules remain in the bloodstream for about 3 months, which makes it possible to determine changes in sugar levels over a specified period.
In parallel, the doctor may prescribe a urine test for ketones and the development of ketoacidosis. Every year, the patient must undergo an ophthalmologist’s consultation – to exclude diabetic retinopathy. Checkups are done more frequently during pregnancy.
- Revision of the daily diet
Diabetes treatment is based on the right diet. Quantity and food allow you to control glucose levels, which affects the frequency of symptoms of the disease. For patients with diabetes mellitus, a rigid diet is provided with the calculation of the calorie content of dishes.
A dietitian is involved in the selection of a suitable menu. The specialist chooses a suitable diet in accordance with the patient’s body weight, the regularity of sports activities, and his usual lifestyle. In the absence of a nutritionist, a local endocrinologist or therapist can draw up a personal diet.
Doctors recommend not to self-medicate, but to seek professional help when the first clinical signs of the disease appear. Refusal from special food, ignoring the therapy regimen and the use of prohibited foods can worsen the condition, cause complications with serious consequences.