Elevated blood cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
This fat-like substance is necessary for the formation of enzymes, hormones and more. However, if its metabolism is disturbed and its level in the blood is high, irreversible changes develop in the vascular wall – atherosclerosis, which is dangerous for its complications (heart attack, stroke, impaired blood supply to various organs).
Dangerous in terms of the development of atherosclerosis is considered to be an imbalance between the fractions – low-density lipoprotein LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The former have an atherogenic effect and their high content is a risk of cardiovascular diseases. High-density cholesterol (“good”) is produced by the body. Moderate physical activity promotes its production and at the same time reduces the accumulation of harmful substances that come only with food.
To reduce the level of cholesterol, medical nutrition has been developed. A diet to lower blood cholesterol levels can be used in the treatment and prevention of diseases – it is suitable for people who take care of their health. Its purpose is to improve lipid metabolism and reduce weight. The main principle of this diet is to reduce animal fat, which we get from meat, fatty dairy products, and simple carbohydrates. Polyunsaturated fats (vegetable oils and nuts are their source), fiber and complex carbohydrates (we get them from vegetables, grains, bran) should prevail in the diet. It is a large amount of fiber that helps to remove excess cholesterol from the gastrointestinal tract. The protein content in this health food is within normal limits, and they can be obtained through the use of a variety of legumes and lean meats.
The amount of bread is not more than 200 g per day, the use of dietary bread with bran is also allowed. Salt and the amount of consumed liquid are limited to 1.2 liters. Dishes must be cooked without salt, but it is allowed to add salt to the prepared food on the table. Vegetables are eaten raw or stewed, while meat and fish are best boiled (baked) to reduce fat in the diet. Eating a lot of vegetables at dinner is considered important. The daily calorie content is 1400-1500 kcal.
The basic principles of nutrition with high blood cholesterol:
- Cereals, vegetables and fruits containing complex carbohydrates and high amounts of fiber should make up about 60% of the diet. Vegetables should be eaten daily 400 g (a third fresh) and 200 g of grain products.
- The predominance of vegetable oils in the diet.
- Moderate consumption of permitted dairy products.
- Eating with high blood cholesterol includes fish, chicken and turkey, which are the foods of choice, with lean beef taking second place in the diet.
- The amount of salt is minimal.
- 2-3 eggs per week (protein is not limited).
- Avoid feeling hungry (having fruit snacks on time).
The diet for high cholesterol in women is no different from that for men and the general principles of nutrition are preserved. The total cholesterol in women and men should be no more than 5.2 mmol / l, the indicator 6.19 mmol / l is already considered significantly increased. HDL in women should be at least 0.9 mmol / l and up to 1.9 mmol / l, in men this indicator differs – from 0.7 to 1.7 mmol / l.
The onset of menopause adversely affects the metabolism of cholesterol and is explained by the fact that with the onset of menopause, estrogen synthesis decreases, and it regulates the production of “good” cholesterol. The rise of “bad” is promoted by a woman’s sedentary lifestyle, overeating and the use of fatty and high-calorie foods.
A diet with high cholesterol in women should contain as much as possible plant foods rich in phytosterols, which control and lower the level of bad cholesterol:
Vegetables and fruits containing pectin are no less useful: apples, citrus fruits, beets, watermelons and natural vegetable juices. Remember that all purple and red fruits and vegetables contain polyphenols that stimulate the production of good cholesterol: blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, chokeberry cranberry juice, lingonberries, pomegranate, purple and red grapes, plums, eggplants. Green leafy salads and vegetables are also useful: cabbage, lettuce, spinach, sorrel, artichoke and parsley, dill and green onions available to everyone.
It is imperative to include legumes in the diet, which, due to their high fiber content, will remove harmful cholesterol from the intestines. In terms of protein content, they can replace meat.
It is good for older women to consume soy products containing phytoestrogens. Do not forget about the correct cooking of meat and fish – minimum fat when cooking – best baked in the oven, in pots or steamed.
Given the cravings of women for sweets, it will be very difficult to give up sweet cream products, chocolate and sweets, baked goods, cookies, waffles and limit yourself to sugar. But this must be done. Fatty meat should also disappear from the diet, you will have to give up processed meat (sausages, boiled pork). Pork, bacon and bacon are prohibited. Do not forget about the need for physical activity. All this will only bring benefit – analyzes will normalize, weight will decrease, and you will celebrate yourself attractive.
Often high cholesterol is observed in diseases of the internal organs and the endocrine system: nephritis, hypothyroidism, obesity, diabetes mellitus. This combined pathology requires a special approach to nutrition and more serious treatment. In each case, the issue is resolved individually and nutritional therapy is prescribed for the underlying disease. For example, what diet is indicated for high cholesterol and kidney disease? In this case, you need to follow Table 7 and its varieties. Diet 7 is prescribed for chronic kidney disease and, in addition to limiting salt, the amount of fluid you drink, provides for the exclusion of foods rich in cholesterol (kidneys, liver, egg yolk, brains).
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Shown subject to availability:
- high cholesterol levels;
- being overweight;
- high blood pressure;
- diabetes mellitus;
- diseases myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke.
Proper nutrition with high cholesterol should become the norm. What should it be? First of all, you need to exclude meat broths – prepare vegetarian soups, if this is difficult and unusual for you, then you can use a weak secondary broth for the first courses and carefully remove the fat. Use potatoes in a minimal amount and it is better to cook prefabricated vegetable soups, cabbage soup and borscht.
Cabbage with high cholesterol Meat and poultry should be taken of low-fat species, poultry skin is unacceptable, fat from meat should be cut off additionally. Since the diet provides for the restriction of fats, the meat must be boiled or baked without adding sour cream, mayonnaise and any fat. Eat vegetables as a side dish, not cereals. They are best prepared for breakfast (oatmeal, buckwheat and brown rice).
Cabbage (all types), carrots, zucchini, pumpkin, eggplant, or salads with fresh vegetables and green peas will help lower cholesterol levels. The total amount of vegetables eaten per day is at least 400g.
Use virgin vegetable oils for dressing ready meals. Flaxseed oil is useful in this regard, the leader in the content of omega-3 fatty acids, which regulate the production of beneficial lipids.
Lowering cholesterol levels can be achieved by introducing low-fat sea fish dishes into the diet, and the consumption of meat (chicken) should still be limited to 1 time per week. Diet varieties should be chosen from fish: hake, haddock, blue whiting, navaga, pollock, pollock.
Bread is allowed rye, grain flour and bran. You can use yeast-free breads (with bran, with flax seeds) for snacks and for first courses. Milk and fermented milk products are allowed only with low fat content and in limited quantities. Green tea and weak coffee with milk and without sugar, vegetable juices and fruit without sugar are allowed.