CANCER TREATMENT PROGRAMS

Types of cancer can be classified depending on the location of the tumor, its size, cause of occurrence, etc. Various factors, from malnutrition to genetic inheritance, can affect the development of the tumor process in the body. All types of cancer require a specific treatment regimen in order to maintain a normal course of life. Cancer types are characterized by the difference in the cellular structure of the tumor,

Tthe dynamics of development, as well as the level of survival during treatment. Oncological diseases can occur in all systems and organs of the body. The classification of types of cancer occurs depending on the location of the tumor and many other factors. So the process of development of a malignant tumor can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, upper respiratory tract and chest, skin, skeleton and soft tissues, circulatory and lymphatic system, brain and spinal cord. Cancer is an active progressive abnormal proliferation of atypical cells that replace normal tissue. Many types of cancer are easily diagnosed in the early stages, which makes it possible to defeat cancer effectively and efficiently. In the latency period, when the symptoms and signs of cancer have not yet manifested in the patient, but the multiplication of cancer cells is already taking place, the form and type of cancer is revealed. All types of cancer are symptomatic depending on the location of the tumor and its stage. Pain syndromes are manifested in the place of oncology growth, and the general condition of the body worsens, the temperature rises slightly, and appetite decreases. An important condition for effective treatment is its detection in the early stages, when cancer cells have not yet entered the blood and lymph.

Stages of development of cancer

Depending on the progression of the disease, oncology is divided into stages. At the first stage, the tumor reaches a small size and is located within the organ, the second stage differs from the first by an increase in tumor size, the third stage is the germination of cancer cells into the nearest tissues and lymph, the fourth stage is an active progressive development of the tumor and metastasis to distant organs. All cancers are classified according to a single system for measuring the pathological process in the body, which helps cancer centers around the world compare values. The letter and numeric designation of the stages of oncological disease is disclosed by the international system of clinical classification of cancer, and has a designation regardless of the type of cancer. To determine the values, there are three criteria – the size of the cancer, metastasis in the lymph and the presence of metastases in other organs.

What are metastases?

Metastasis is the transfer of tumor cells in the body, which create new foci in other organs. Cancer types do not affect the possibility of multiple tumors. Metastases develop in three main stages: invasion – the transfer of pathogenic cells into the vessels; the flow of these cells by the flow of blood, lymph and cavity fluids, implantation – engraftment of cancer cells and the formation of a secondary tumor focus. Diagnosis of the disease by computed tomography helps to detect the type of cancer and the formation of metastases in the body and choose an effective treatment to improve the picture of the disease.

Types of cancer

Cancer types are determined based on many factors. Cancer is classified according to several criteria:

at the site of tumor localization;

by the type of tissue in which cancer cells develop, by the structure of cancer cells, by the principle of division, by the complexity of development. Cancer types are classified according to the location of the tumor. That is, the organ or system where it develops. Also, the types of cancer are divided by tissue type. Cancer cells proliferate in muscle, epithelial, bone, vascular, nervous and connective tissue. The development of a malignant tumor in several types of tissues is called complex. According to the structure of tumor cells, there are: carcinoma – cancer in the epithelium, leukemia – the development of a cancerous process in the hematopoietic system, melanoma – skin cancer, sarcoma – cancer in the connective tissue, lymphoma – cancer in the lymphatic system, glioma – brain cancer, etc. According to the principle of division of cancer cells, the types of clinical, morphological and histological cancers are divided. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers. They occur in the thyroid, pancreas and mammary glands, cervix and lungs.

Risk factors

All types of cancer occur in the body under the influence of certain factors. The development of cancer mainly depends on the lifestyle. Improper nutrition with low-quality foods with a high content of carcinogens causes the development of malignant tumors. Excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking is also a factor in the occurrence of cancer, as well as work in hazardous industries and enterprises, where the body accumulates toxic substances. Heredity also affects the presence of cancer cells in the body. Pathological processes in cells can occur after their mutation in the prenatal period and during the development of the organism. So some types of cancer develop in newborn babies along with the growth of body tissues. Poor ecology and high levels of radiation are also causes of cancer.

Diagnostics of oncological diseases

Early diagnosis of the disease allows you to choose an effective treatment and increase the chances of recovery and maintaining the normal course of the patient’s life. A successful method of treatment is possible only after detecting a cancerous tumor and determining the type of cancer. Diagnosis of treatment begins with a consultation with a specialist and an assessment of the symptoms of the disease, after which a number of studies are assigned. Cancer types are determined after ultrasound and biopsy. A complete approach to the diagnosis of the disease, taking into account age, concomitant ailments and risk factors, helps to exclude false symptoms.

Cancer treatment methods

Treatment methods are selected depending on the type of cancer. The most effective is a combined or integrated approach to getting rid of the disease. The main and radical method of treatment is surgery. Some cancers can remove a tumor within or with an organ. But the operation is not always the solution, and then other methods of treatment are selected. Additional treatment is prescribed for the type of cancer, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. A successful outcome of treatment can be achieved if the patient is committed to treatment and adherence to medical recommendations, preventive measures and observation by an oncologist. Early diagnosis of cancer allows you to avoid aggravating the condition, restoring the normal course of life, and avoiding the possibility of relapse.

Cancer prevention

Cancer prevention is, first of all, a healthy lifestyle. Refusal to use alcohol, tobacco smoking, junk and fatty foods, an active lifestyle and a calm nervous state. Cancers should be monitored throughout life using screening tests. Due to the latent course of cancer, symptoms may appear already at an advanced stage, when treatment may be ineffective. Therefore, preventive examinations and an attentive approach to dangerous symptoms will help maintain health for many years, and if the disease does occur, especially if all risk factors are taken into account, this will allow you to choose the right method of treatment for any type of cancer. The main task of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Medical Research Center of Radiology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation is to fulfill the state assignment to provide medical assistance to citizens of the Russian Federation in the treatment of oncological diseases. At the Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Medical Research Center of Radiology” of the Ministry of Health of Russia and its branches: the Moscow Research Oncological Institute named after P.A. Herzen (P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncological Research Institute), A.F. Tsyba (MRRC named after A.F. Tsyb), Scientific Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology named after N.A. Lopatkin (Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology named after N.A. Lopatkin) employs 520 highly qualified doctors – doctors and candidates of medical sciences, 1250 – residents of the highest and first categories. All of them, as well as researchers, nurses, orderlies and many other workers serve tens of thousands of patients. Every year, more than eight thousand patients receive high-tech medical care under state guarantees at the National Medical Research Center of Radiology of the Russian Ministry of Health. More than 14 thousand patients undergo surgery, 12 thousand undergo chemotherapy courses.

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